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A battery is an electrochemical device that can store energy in the form of chemical energy. When a battery is connected to a circuit, it is converted into electricity due to the flow of electrons due to the specific location of the chemicals. It was invented by Alessandro Volta and Gaston Plante invented the rechargeable battery.
A battery is made up of three components: the negative electrode, the positive electrode, and the electrolyte (a chemical that reacts with both sides), as shown in the picture below. The electrolyte serves as the electron transport medium between the anode and cathode.
It works through electrochemical reactions called oxidation and reduction. In this reaction, electrons flow from one side to the other when an external circuit is connected to the anode and cathode.
Battery chemistry will vary based on different applications, specifications, sizes, etc.